Overview of Research Basis

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June 2007

Tutored students made significantly greater gains reading words and comprehending text than controls... The majority of tutored students reached average reading levels whereas the majority of controls did not.
— Ehri, Dreyer, Flugman, & Gross

"Findings of the present study offered strong support for the effectiveness of the Reading Rescue [herein: RES] intervention model. First-grade, language-minority struggling readers who received RES tutoring made significantly greater improvement in reading than language-minority struggling readers who did not receive this tutoring but were enrolled in the same schools, and also greater improvement than struggling readers who were enrolled in comparable schools not using the program. Also, students receiving RES tutoring outperformed students receiving a commercially produced small-group intervention program mandated by the school district for struggling readers. An advantage occurred despite the fact that both intervention programs were comprehensive and provided instruction in the same components."

“From these findings, we conclude that paraprofessionals tutored as effectively as the credentialed teachers who were not reading specialists. Moreover, paraprofessionals tutored as well as the reading specialists in strengthening students’ word reading and text comprehension skills but not as well in teaching the skills that benefit non word decoding. In addition, paraprofessionals took more sessions to work with students than reading specialists, suggesting that they were less efficient in carrying out the tutoring.”

Ehri, L. C., Dreyer, L. G., Flugman, B., Gross, A. (2007). Reading Rescue: An Effective Tutoring Intervention Model for Language-Minority Students Who Are Struggling Readers in First Grade. American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), pp. 414-448.